The total rent is composed of basic rent and service costs. The basic rent is the sum of money the tenant pays solely for the room. The service costs are additional expenses associated with the tenancy, such as the use of gas, water, electricity, etc. It is also possible that the landlord pays the service costs directly to the service provider, which depends on the agreed-upon terms and conditions in the rental agreement. There may also be additional agreements regarding for example cleaning costs. If the rental agreement does not include arrangements concerning these matters, the tenant is not obliged to pay the associated costs.
When agreed that the service costs are paid to the landlord, the landlord is required to arrange an annual settlement of expenses. Since these expenses are paid in advance, the landlord is required to reimburse any excess payment. It often occurs that the landlord does not reach out to the tenant if there is a case of excess payment, but does reach out when the tenant expended more than the service costs could cover.
The landlord is required to disclose an annual overview of the incurred service costs. This overview has to be provided within six months after the end of the calendar year. The tenant may also have access to the bills included in the overview. If it were the case that an overview of the incurred costs is not disclosed to the tenant, they are allowed to claim this at the rent tribunal.